E-ISSN 2983-757X
 

Research Article

Online Publishing Date:
10 / 05 / 2024

 


Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria

Joshua Seyi Oyetunde, Mohammed Mamman, Jibril Adamu, Peter Ofemile Yusuf, Kelvin Olutimilehin Jolayemi , Collins Chimezie Udechukwu, Magdalene Ogbonneya Okoronkwo, Olayinka Asala, Olushola Olaolu, Abubakar Ogbonneya Usman.


Abstract
Aim: This research sought to experiment on a cheaper alternative to snake antivenom production using hyperimmunized chicken eggs.
Methods: Twenty-two Swiss albino mice were used to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) and lethality neutralization assay. Twenty-layer chickens, aged 17-weeks-old were divided into two groups of 10 chickens each. Based on body weight, group A were hyperimmunized with 1/5th LD50 of crude Bitis arietans venom in adjuvant (Montanide™ ISA 201) at two-weeks interval over eight-weeks period; while group B were administered normal saline. Using polyethylene glycol 6000, immunoglobulin Y was extracted from 15 pooled egg yolks. Twelve Wistar rats were used for the haemorrhagic and anti-haemorrhagic assays. The haemolytic activity of the venom and anti-haemolytic effect of the candidate antivenom was determined in vitro using caprine erythrocytes.
Results: The LD50 of the pooled Bitis arietans venom was 0.9 mg/kg. Agar gel immunodiffusion test confirmed the presence of precipitin antibodies in the candidate antivenom. EchiTab plus-ICP® neutralized lethal effect of all dilutions and the stock (10 mg/ml) venom of Bitis arietans while the candidate antivenom was limited to 3log2 dilution of the stock venom (1.25 mg/ml). In the haemorrhagic assay the venom exhibited haemorrhagic activity at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml and the highest anti-haemorrhagic activity of the candidate antivenom at 10mg/ml. The candidate antivenom exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) anti-haemolytic activity against the venom of Bitis arietans at 10 mg/ml.
Conclusion: The antibodies have inhibitory properties against the lethal, haemorrhagic and haemolytic properties of Bitis arietans venom.

Key words: Antivenom, Bitis arietans, Immunoglobin Y, Layer chickens, Monovalent


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Oyetunde JS, Mamman M, Adamu J, Yusuf PO, KOJ, Udechukwu CC, Okoronkwo MO, Asala O, Olaolu O, Usman AO, . Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. J Res Vet Sci. Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924


Web Style

Oyetunde JS, Mamman M, Adamu J, Yusuf PO, KOJ, Udechukwu CC, Okoronkwo MO, Asala O, Olaolu O, Usman AO, . Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. https://www.wisdomgale.com/jrvs/?mno=198565 [Access: May 12, 2024]. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Oyetunde JS, Mamman M, Adamu J, Yusuf PO, KOJ, Udechukwu CC, Okoronkwo MO, Asala O, Olaolu O, Usman AO, . Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. J Res Vet Sci. Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Oyetunde JS, Mamman M, Adamu J, Yusuf PO, KOJ, Udechukwu CC, Okoronkwo MO, Asala O, Olaolu O, Usman AO, . Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. J Res Vet Sci, [cited May 12, 2024]; Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924



Harvard Style

Oyetunde, J. S., Mamman, M., Adamu, J., Yusuf, P. O., , K. O. J., Udechukwu, C. C., Okoronkwo, M. O., Asala, O., Olaolu, O., Usman, A. O. & (0) Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. J Res Vet Sci, Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924



Turabian Style

Oyetunde, Joshua Seyi, Mohammed Mamman, Jibril Adamu, Peter Ofemile Yusuf, Kelvin Olutimilehin Jolayemi, Collins Chimezie Udechukwu, Magdalene Ogbonneya Okoronkwo, Olayinka Asala, Olushola Olaolu, Abubakar Ogbonneya Usman, and . 0. Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Veterinary Sciences, Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924



Chicago Style

Oyetunde, Joshua Seyi, Mohammed Mamman, Jibril Adamu, Peter Ofemile Yusuf, Kelvin Olutimilehin Jolayemi, Collins Chimezie Udechukwu, Magdalene Ogbonneya Okoronkwo, Olayinka Asala, Olushola Olaolu, Abubakar Ogbonneya Usman, and . "Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria." Journal of Research in Veterinary Sciences Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Oyetunde, Joshua Seyi, Mohammed Mamman, Jibril Adamu, Peter Ofemile Yusuf, Kelvin Olutimilehin Jolayemi, Collins Chimezie Udechukwu, Magdalene Ogbonneya Okoronkwo, Olayinka Asala, Olushola Olaolu, Abubakar Ogbonneya Usman, and . "Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria." Journal of Research in Veterinary Sciences Online First: 10 May, 2024. Web. 12 May 2024 doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Oyetunde, J. S., Mamman, M., Adamu, J., Yusuf, P. O., , K. O. J., Udechukwu, C. C., Okoronkwo, M. O., Asala, O., Olaolu, O., Usman, A. O. & (0) Evaluation of candidate monovalent Bitis arietans antivenom using eggs from hyperimmunized layer chickens in Zaria Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Veterinary Sciences, Online First: 10 May, 2024. doi:10.5455/JRVS.20240421033924